Raymond J. LaJeunesse, Jr., Vice President and Legal Director (2001-present)
Foundation Staff Attorney, 1971-2001; Legislative Assistant (part-time), Virginia House of Delegates, 1972-73; self-employed political research consultant, Washington, DC, 1969-71; Research Director, United Republicans of America, Washington, DC, 1967-68; Martindale-Hubbell® AV® Peer Review Rated; American Lawyer Media 2013 Top Rated Lawyer in Labor & Employment and Virginia Top-Rated Lawyer; received Avvo’s "Superb" rating in "Constitutional" and "Employment/Labor" law categories. Bar Admissions: Virginia, 1967; District of Columbia, 1972; U.S. Supreme Court, 1982 (admitted only in VA & DC). Law School: Washington & Lee University, LL.B., 1967. College: Providence College, A.B., Humanities, cum laude, 1964. Member: Vice Chairman, Labor and Employment Practice Group, Federalist Society National Lawyers Division, 2000-present; Advisor for Labor-Related Agencies, Office of the President-Elect, 1980-81. Publications: “The National Labor Relations Board Has Failed to Enforce Fully Workers’ Rights Under Communications Workers v. Beck Not to Subsidize Unions’ Political and Other Nonbargaining Activities,” 70 New York University Annual Survey of American Law 305 (2015). "The Controversial ‘Card Check’ Bill, Stalled in the United States Congress, Presents Serious Legal and Policy Issues," 14 TEXAS REVIEW OF LAW & POLITICS 209 (2010); "Workers’ Experiences in Attempting to Exercise Their Rights Under Communications Workers v. Beck", Engage, Apr. 2002, at 102; "The Future of Unions," Federalist Society Labor & Employment Law News, Spring 1999, at 1; Comment on T.R. Haggard, "Union Security in the Context of Labor Arbitration," 1994 Proceedings of National Academy of Arbitrators124; "Employees’ Freedom from Ideological Conformity: A Right Without a Remedy?," 5 Journal of Labor Research 265 (1984); Case Comment, "A Struck Carrier’s Right to Attempt to Operate," 24 Washington & Lee Law Review 80 (1967). Reported Cases (partial listing): Marquez v. Screen Actors Guild, 525 U.S. 33 (1998); Airline Pilots Ass’n v. Miller, 523 U.S. 866 (1998); Lehnert v. Ferris Faculty Ass’n, 500 U.S. 507 (1991); Wessel v. City of Albuquerque, 299 F.3d 1186 (10th Cir. 2002), after remand, 463 F.3d 1138 (10th Cir. 2006); Hohe v. Casey, 956 F.2d 399 (3d Cir. 1992); Ferriso v. NLRB, 125 F.3d 865 (D.C. Cir. 1997); Bromley v. Michigan Education Ass’n, 82 F.3d 686 (6th Cir. 1996); Harrington v. City of Albuquerque, 222 F.R.D. 505 (D.N.M. 2004); Lutz v. Machinists, 121 F. Supp. 2d 498 (E.D. Va. 2000); Browne v. Wisconsin Employment Relations Commission, 485 N.W. 2d 376 (Wis. 1992).
Byron S. Andrus, Staff Attorney (2014-present)
Koch Associate, Charles Koch Institute, Arlington, VA, 2014-2015; Legal Intern, National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation, 2012-2013; Legal Intern, National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, June 2011-August 2011; Intern, Office of U.S. Senator David Vitter, July 2010-August 2010. Bar Admissions: District of Columbia, 2014 (admitted in D.C. only). Law School: George Mason University School of Law, J.D., 2013. College: Louisiana State University, B.A. summa cum laude, 2010. Member: Federalist Society.
Bruce N. Cameron, Staff Attorney (1976-present)
Reed Larson Professor of Labor Law, Regent University School of Law, 2007-present; Intern, U.S. Attorneys Office, Justice Honors Program, Atlanta, GA, U.S. Department of Justice, 1975-76. Bar Admissions: Georgia, 1976; U.S. Supreme Court, 1982; District of Columbia, 1984; Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, 1984 (admitted only in GA, DC & MA). Law School: Emory University, J.D., 1976. College: Andrews University, B.A., Business Administration/Political Science, with honors, 1973. Member: Virginia State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (2015-2019); Federalist Society Faculty Division; Christian Legal Society. Publications (partial listing): "The Hardison Case," Liberty, Sept.-Oct. 1977, at 15; "Rebuttal: Right to Work Law Note," 14 Georgia State Bar Journal 138 (1978); "Labor Unions and Rights of Conscience," Liberty, May-June 1981, at 6; "Caution: Agency Fee Payers Can Be Harmful to Your Financial Health," Illinois Public Employee Relations Report, Summer 1987, at 7; Co-author, "Agency Service Fee Litigation," in Lawyers Weekly, A Judicial Guide to Labor and Employment 423 (1990); "Union Dues and Ethical Don’ts," Vision, July-Aug. 1996, at 4; "An Employee’s Guide to Union Dues and Religious Do Nots," monograph published by the Foundation; "Jethro Was Right: Arbitrate, Not Litigate," Adventist Lawyer 2002; "Your Other Right," 97 Liberty, July-Aug. 2002, at 21. "Card Sharks and Marks," LIBERTY, Jan.-Feb. 2006, at 26; "Religious Accomodation in Forced Dues Environments," ENGAGE, Mar. 2006, at 122; "Where Are The Bridges of Madison?" 106 LIBERTY 12, July-August 2011; "EI, EI, Oh What An Employee: The Biblical Basis for Teaching Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace," (2011). Reported Cases (partial listing): Equal Opportunity Employment Commission v. University of Detroit, 904 F.2d 331 (6th Cir. 1990); Wilson v. NLRB, 920 F.2d 1282 (6th Cir. 1990); Machinists Lodge 720 v. NLRB, 626 F.2d 119 (9th Cir. 1980); Katter v. Ohio Employment Labor Relations Bd., 492 F.Supp.2d 851 (S.D. OH 2007); Sheridan v. Electrical Workers Local 455, 940 F. Supp. 368 (D. Mass. 1996); Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. AFSCME Council 82, 937 F. Supp. 166 (N.D. N.Y. 1996); Wareham Education Ass’n v. Labor Relations Commission, 713 N.E.2d 363 (Mass. 1999); Conley v. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 539 N.E.2d 1024 (Mass. 1989); Lyons v. Labor Relations Commission, 492 N.E.2d 343 (Mass. 1986); School Committee v. Greenfield Education Ass’n, 431 N.E.2d 180 (Mass. 1982).
Milton L. Chappell, Staff Attorney (1976-present)
Foundation Law Clerk, 1975-76; Legal Intern, Counsel for the Columbia Union Conference Association of Seventh-day Adventists, Takoma Park, MD, 1974-75. Bar Admissions: Maryland, 1976; District of Columbia, 1977; U.S. Supreme Court, 1980 (admitted only in MD & DC). Law School: Catholic University, J.D., 1976. College: Washington Adventist University, B.A., Sociology/Political Science, summa cum laude, 1972. Member: Federalist Society. Publications: "Protecting the Rights of State Employees Against Compulsory Unionism," California Public Employee Relations, No. 143 (Aug. 2000); "Legislative and Practical Alternatives to the Current Monopoly Bargaining Model That Will Enhance the Viability of Independent Teacher Groups," Government Union Review, Summer 1995, at 1; "From Abood to Tierney: The Protection of Nonunion Employees in an Agency Shop: You’ve Come a Long Way," 15 Ohio Northern University Law Review 1 (1988). Reported Cases (partial listing): Davenport v. Washington Education Association, 551 U.S. 177 (2007); Otto v. Pennsylvania State Education Ass’n, 330 F.3d 125 (3d Cir. 2003); Damiano v. Matish, 830 F.2d 1363 (6th Cir. 1987); Swanson v. University of Hawaii Professional Assembly, 269 F. Supp. 2d 1252 (D. Hawaii 2003); Leer v. Washington Education Ass’n., 172 F.R.D. 439 (W.D. Wash. 1997); George v. Baltimore City Public Schools, 117 F.R.D. 368 (D. Md. 1987); FEC v. NEA, 457 F. Supp. 1102 (D.D.C. 1978); Elvin v. Oregon Public Employees Union, 832 P.2d 26 (Or. 1992); Albro v. Indianapolis Educ. Ass’n, 585 N.E.2d 666 (Ind.App.), aff’d sum nom., Fort Wayne Educ. Ass’n v. Aldrich, 594 N.E.2d 781 (Ind. 1992); Ball v. City of Detroit, 84 Mich. App. 383, 269 N.W.2d 607 (1978); Marceau v. International Broth. of Elec. Workers, 618 F.Supp.2d 1127 (D. Ariz. 2009); Wilson v. NLRB, 920 F.2d 1282 (6th Cir. 1990).
Richard J. Clair, Corporate Counsel and Staff Attorney (1993-present)
Foundation Staff Attorney, 1979-1993; Tax Law Specialist, Exempt Organizations Division, IRS, Washington, DC, 1977-79. Bar Admissions: Louisiana, 1976; Virginia, 1977; U.S. Supreme Court, 1982 (admitted in only LA & VA). Law School: Loyola University, New Orleans, LA, J.D., 1976. College: Catholic University, B.A., Spanish, 1972. Member: Federalist Society. Publications: "Catholic Social Teaching and the Right to Work," monograph published by the Foundation (http://www.nrtw.org/a/Catholic.pdf). Reported Cases: (partial listing):Machinists Local 2771 v. DynCorp, Aerospace Operations, Sheppard ENJJPT Division, 796 F. Supp. 976 (N.D. Tex. 1991); Davidson v. Cook, 567 F. Supp. 225 (E.D. Va. 1983), aff‘d, 734 F.2d 10 (4th Cir. 1984);National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation v. United States, 487 F. Supp. 801 (E.D.N.C. 1979); Food & Commercial Workers Locals 951, 7 & 1036, 329 N.L.R.B. 730 (1999).
Amanda K. Freeman, Staff Attorney (2013-present)
Judicial Clerk, Honorable Glen A. Huff, Virginia Court of Appeals, August 2011–August 2013; Judicial Clerk, Honorable Robert J. Humphreys, Virginia Court of Appeals, August 2009–July 2011; Intern, Lentz, Stepanovich & Bergethon, PLC, Virginia Beach, VA, May 2008–August 2008, October 2008; Paralegal, Mauck & Baker, LLC, Chicago, IL, Summer 2007 and Feb. 2006–Aug. 2006. Bar Admission: Commonwealth of Virginia, 2009; U.S. Supreme Court, 2013 (admitted only in VA). Law School: Regent University School of Law, J.D., 2009; Study Abroad: International Human Rights, Strasbourg, France, Summer 2007. College: Bob Jones University, B.S. cum laude, 2005. Member: Federalist Society. Publication: Does "Emergency" Trump Conscience Thus Drawing Another Line In the Sand For Pharmacists?, 21 REGENT U. L. REV. 181 (2008).
Matthew B. Gilliam, Staff Attorney (2014-present)
Associate Attorney, Robinson & McElwee, PLLC, 2013-2014; Legal Associate, Cato Institute, Center for Constitutional Studies, 2012-2013; Law Clerk, U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons, Office of General Counsel-Legislative and Correctional Issues, 2010-2011; Intern, Bullard Falla Ezcurra, Summer 2009; Territory Manager, Marathon Petroleum, Marketing Division, 2000-2007. Bar Admission: New York, 2012; West Virginia, 2013; U.S. District Court, Southern District of West Virginia, 2013 (admitted only in NY and WV). Law School: Georgetown University Law Center, J.D. 2011. College: Transylvania University, B.A. 1999, magna cum laude. Member: Federalist Society. Spanish-fluent.
Alyssa K. Hazelwood, Staff Attorney (2016-present)
Law Clerk, United States Magistrate Judge Alicia M. Otazo-Reyes, United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida, Miami, FL, 2014-15; Legal Researcher, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., 2013-14; Law Clerk, Judge Dean A. Colvin, Marshall County Superior Court No. 2, Plymouth, IN, 2010; Intern, United States District Judge Stephen J. Murphy, III, United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, Detroit, MI, 2010. Bar Admissions: Maryland, 2013 (admitted in MD only). Law School: University of Notre Dame Law School, J.D., magna cum laude, 2013. College: Michigan State University, B.S. Economics, B.S. Mathematics, B.A. History, with Honor, 2009. Member: Federalist Society.
Jeffrey D. Jennings, Staff Attorney (2014-present)
Koch Associate, Charles Koch Institute, Arlington, VA, 2015-present; Foundation Law Clerk, September 2014-December 2014; Fall Law Clerk, Institute for Justice, September 2013-November 2013; Summer Law Clerk, Institute for Justice, June 2013-August 2013; Judicial Extern, Honorable Rossie D. Alston, Jr., Virginia Court of Appeals, January 2013-April 2013; Judicial Extern, Honorable Jonathan C. Thacher, Fairfax Circuit Court, May 2012-August 2012. Bar Admissions: Virginia, 2014 (admitted only in VA). Law School: George Mason University School of Law, J.D., 2014. College: California State University Stanislaus, B.A., summa cum laude, 2009. Member: Federalist Society.
William L. Messenger, Staff Attorney (2001-present)
Foundation Law Clerk, 2001, 1999-2000; Law Clerk, National Association of Manufacturers, Washington, DC, 2000-01; Law Clerk, Office of General Counsel, Federal Election Commission, Washington, DC, 2000; Intern, Assistant Majority Leader’s Office, U.S. Senate, 1998; Intern, Republican Policy Committee, U.S. Senate, 1997; Intern, Office of U.S. Senator Mike DeWine (R-OH), 1996. Bar Admissions: Virginia, 2001; U.S. Supreme Court, 2009 (admitted only in VA). Law School: George Washington University, J.D., cum laude, 2001. College: Ohio University, B.B.A., 1997. Member: Federalist Society. Publications: "Does the First Amendment Allow States to Compel Recipients of Government Monies to Support State-Designated Representatives?," ENGAGE, Sept. 2010, at 88; "Pre-Recognition Agreements: Can Employers Lawfully Acquire Control Over the Future Representative of their Employees under § 8(a)(2) of the NLRA?," ENGAGE, Oct. 2006, at 131. Reported Cases: Harris v. Quinn, 134 S. Ct. 2618 (2014); Mulhall v. UNITE HERE Local 355, 618 F.3d 1279 (2010), after remand, 667 F.3d 1211 (11th Cir. 2012), cert. dismissed, 134 S. Ct. 594 (2013) (per curiam 6-3 decision) (argued Nov. 13, 2013); Dana Corp., 341 N.L.R.B. No. 150, 2004 WL 1329345 (June 7, 2004).
John N. Raudabaugh, Staff Attorney (2012-present)
Reed Larson Professor of Labor Law, Ave Maria School of Law, 2012-present; Nixon Peabody LLP, 2010-2012; Baker & McKenzie LLP, 2006-2010; Butzel Long, 2004-2006; Matkov Salzman, 1993-2004; Member, U.S. National Labor Relations Board, 1990-1993; Constangy Brooks & Smith, 1989-1990; Powell Goldstein, 1977-1989. Bar Admissions: Georgia, 1977; U.S. Supreme Court, 1982; District of Columbia, 1993; Michigan, 2005 (admitted only in GA, DC, and MI). Law School: University of Virginia, J.D. 1977; Graduate School: New York State School of Labor and Industrial Relations, Cornell University, M.S. Labor Economics and Econometrics, 1974. College: Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania, B.S. Labor Economics, cum laude, 1968. Military Service: Flag Lieutenant, U.S. Navy Supply Corps, 1968-1972. Member: Senior Advisor, Labor and Employment Practice Group, Federalist Society National Lawyers Division; Labor and Employment Relations Association; American Bar Association. Publications and Testimony: "Labored Law: Bilateralism or Pluralism, Ossification or Reformation?," 87 Indiana L.J. 105(2012); "Protecting Private Ballot Rights for American Workers," U.S. Senate Republican Conference, 2008; "NLRB Representation Elections and Initial Collective Bargaining Agreements: Safeguarding Workers’ Rights?", U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations, 2008; "National Labor Relations Board 2007 Year in Review: Fueling Union’s Demand for Euro-Centric Labor Law Reform," CCH Labor Law Journal, Spring 2008, pp. 16–25; "Contract Modification and Unilateral Change—Bath Iron Works," ABA Section of Labor and Employment Law, 2006; "Secret Ballot Protection Act of 2004," U.S. House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, 2004; "Foreward," A Guide to Sources of Information on the National Labor Relations Board, 2003; "Employee Voting Rights: Industrial Stability vs. Employee Free Choice," ABA Section of Labor and Employment Law, 2001; "Electromation: An Opportunity Lost or Just Postponed?" Chapter 29, Non-Union Employee Representation, 2000; "Employee Relations Law Reform," Industrial Relations Research Association, 50th Anniversary Volume, Government Regulation of the Employment Relationship, 1997; "One Former Board Member’s Recommended Changes to the National Labor Relations Act," IRRA, 1995; "Perspectives on Labor Law Reform," IRRA Spring Proceedings, 1994.
Brandon K. Rowland, Staff Attorney (2012-present)
Koch Associate, Charles Koch Institute, Arlington, VA, 2012-2013; Legislative Correspondent, Office of U.S. Congressman Tim Scott (R-SC), Washington, DC, 2011; Deputy Campaign Manager, Tim Scott for Congress, Charleston, SC, 2010; Associate Attorney, Lowe & Associates, P.C., Charleston, SC, 2008-2009; Owner, Cherokee Vending, LLC, Athens, TN, 2007-2012; Law Clerk, Office of the 10th Judicial District Attorney General, Cleveland, TN, 2003; Intern, Office of U.S. Senator Fred Thompson (R-TN), Chattanooga, TN, 2002. Bar Admissions: South Carolina, 2007; U.S. District Court, District of South Carolina, 2008; United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, 2012; District of Columbia, 2012 (admitted only in SC & DC). Law School: Charleston School of Law, J.D. 2007. College: The Citadel, B.A. 2004. Military Service: Captain, Judge Advocate General’s Corps, South Carolina Army National Guard, 2010-Present.
John C. Scully, Staff Attorney (1982-89, 1992-present)
Counsel, Washington Legal Foundation, Washington, DC, 1989-92; Captain, Judge Advocate General’s Corps, U.S. Army, 1978-81; Intern, Special Projects Division, Missouri Attorney General’s Office, 1977. Bar Admissions: Missouri, 1978; U.S. Supreme Court, 1983 (admitted only in MO). Law School: George Washington University, LL.M., 1987; Missouri University, J.D., 1978. College: George Mason University, M.A., History, 1998; Creighton University, B.A., History, cum laude, 1974. Member: Federalist Society. Publications: "Mandatory Pro Bono: An Attack on the Constitution," 19 Hofstra Law Review 1229 (1991); "Hidden Scheme to Finance Radical Lawyers Plagues Pacific Northwest," Washington Legal Foundation Legal Backgrounder, Mar. 31, 1992; "Washington Legal Foundation Brings Contingency Fee Reform to the State Of Washington," Washington Legal Foundation Legal Backgrounder, Mar. 31, 1992; "Lawyer Associations’ Use of Dues and Client Money Is Politicized and Must Be Stopped," Washington Legal Foundation Legal Opinion Letter, Oct. 23, 1992; "Victims of Special Interest Lawyers Fight Back in the Pacific Northwest," Washington Legal Foundation Legal Opinion Letter, Dec. 6, 1991. Reported Cases (partial listing): Lee v. NLRB, 393 F.3d 491 (4th Cir. 2005); NLRB v. Pueblo of San Juan, 276 F.3d 1186 (10th Cir. 2002); Andrews v. Education Ass’n of Cheshire, 829 F.2d 335 (2d Cir. 1987); Paperworkers Local 1033, 320 N.L.R.B. 349 (1995), review denied sub nom. Buzenius v. NLRB, 191 F.3d 641 (6th Cir. 1999); Teamsters Local 1150, 323 N.L.R.B. 1173 (1997); Carpenters Local 943, 322 N.L.R.B. 825 (1997); Elvin v. Oregon Public Employees Union, 793 P.2d 338 (Or. Ct. App. 1990), aff?d, 832 P.2d 26 (Or. 1992); Weissenstein v. Burlington Board of School Commissioners, 543 A.2d 691 (Vt. 1988).
Aaron B. Solem, Staff Attorney (2012-present)
Koch Associate, Charles Koch Institute, Arlington, VA, 2012-2013; Legislative Assistant, Office of U.S. Congressman Geoff Davis (R-KY), Washington DC, 2011-2012; Committee Administrator, Minnesota House of Representatives Education Finance Committee, St. Paul, MN, 2011; Summer Associate, Bryan Cave, Phoenix, 2009. Bar Admissions: Minnesota, 2012 (admitted only in MN). Law School: University of Notre Dame Law School, J.D., cum laude, 2010. College: University of Minnesota, B.A., 2006. Member: Federalist Society.
Glenn M. Taubman, Staff Attorney (1982-present)
Law Clerk, Senior Circuit Judge Warren L. Jones, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth and Eleventh Circuits, Jacksonville, FL, 1981-82; Staff Attorney, U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida, Jacksonville, FL, 1980-81. Bar Admissions: Georgia, 1980; New York, 1981; U.S. Supreme Court, 1983; District of Columbia, 1985 (admitted only in GA, NY & DC). Law School: Georgetown University, LL.M., 1985; Emory University, J.D., with distinction, 1980. College: State University of New York at Stony Brook, B.A., Political Science & Urban Policy, 1977. Member: Federalist Society. Publications: "’Neutrality Agreements’ and the Destruction of Employees’ Section 7 Rights," ENGAGE, May 2005, at 101; Co-author, "Union Discipline and Employee Rights," monograph published by the Foundation (http://www.nrtw.org/RDA.htm). Reported Cases (partial listing): Nat’l Ass’n of Mfrs. v. N.L.R.B., 846 F. Supp. 2d 34 (D.D.C. 2012), aff’d in part, rev’d in part, 717 F.3d 947 (D.C. Cir. 2013); Lucas v. NLRB, 333 F.3d 927 (9th Cir. 2003) , on remand, IATSE Local 720, 352 NLRB 29 (2008); Penrod v. NLRB, 203 F.3d 41 (D.C. Cir. 2000); Production Workers v. NLRB, 161 F.3d 1047 (7th Cir. 1998); Food & Commercial Workers Local 951 v. Mulder, 31 F.3d 365 (6th Cir. 1994); NLRB v. Office Employees Local 2, 902 F.2d 1164 (4th Cir. 1990); Tierney v. City of Toledo, 824 F.2d 1497 (6th Cir. 1987), further proceedings, 917 F.2d 927 (1990); Lowary v. Lexington Local Board of Education, 854 F.2d 131 (6th Cir. 1988), further proceedings, 902 F.2d 422 (1990); Masiello v. US Airways, Inc., 113 F. Supp. 2d 870 (W.D.N.C. 2000); Jordan v. City of Bucyrus, 739 F. Supp. 1124 (1990), further proceedings, 754 F. Supp. 554 (N.D. Ohio 1991); Dana Corp., 351 N.L.R.B. 434 (2007); California Saw & Knife Works, 320 N.L.R.B. 224 (1995), enforced, 133 F.3d 1012 (7th Cir. 1998); IAM (L-3 Communications), 355 NLRB 1062 (2010).
W. James Young, Staff Attorney (1989-present)
Associate, Borland & Borland, Wilkes-Barre, PA, 1989; Intern, Criminal Division, U.S. Attorney’s Office, Atlanta, GA, U.S. Justice Department, 1988-89; Martindale-Hubbell® AV® Peer Review Rated. Bar Admissions: Pennsylvania, 1989; District of Columbia, 1991; U.S. Supreme Court, 1992 (admitted only in PA & DC). Law School: Emory University, J.D., 1989. College: Hampden-Sydney College, B.A., with Honors in Political Science and History, magna cum laude, 1986. Member: Federalist Society. Publications: "Casting an Overdue Skeptical Eye: Knox v. SEIU," CATO SUPREME COURT REVIEW, September 2012, at 333; "Making Windows into Litigants’ Souls: The Pernicious Potential of Gilpin v. AFSCME," Engage, Apr. 2004, at 90; Co-author, "Big Labor’s Tyranny of the Minority: Forced Union Dues in Politics," Federalist Society Free Speech & Election Law Newsletter, Fall 1996. Reported Decisions (partial listing): Knox v. SEIU Local 1000, 132 S.Ct. 2277 (2012); Locke v. Karass, 555 U.S. 207 (2009); Cummings v. Connell, 402 F. 3d 935 (9th Cir. 2005); Prescott v. County of El Dorado, 177 F.3d 1102 (9th Cir. 1999), vacated, 528 U.S. 1111, reinstated in part, 204 F.3d 984 (9th Cir. 2000); Knight v. Kenai Peninsula Borough School District, 131 F.3d 807 (9th Cir. 1997); Johnson v. Lafayette Firefighters Ass’n, 51 F.3d 726 (7th Cir. 1995); Weaver v. University of Cincinnati, 942 F.2d 1039 (1991), further proceedings, 970 F.2d 1523 (6th Cir. 1992); Dixon v. City of Chicago, 948 F.2d 355 (7th Cir. 1991); Orr v. National Football League Players Ass’n, 147 L.R.R.M. (BNA) 2845 (Va. Cir. Ct. 1994), aff?d, 150 L.R.R.M. (BNA) 2191 (Va. 1995).